Researchers could also compare parenthood and relationship experiences in geographic regions that differ on attitudes toward same-sex relationships and families. Emotional problems were over twice as prevalent minimum risk ratio RR 2. Parental status and kinship systems Individuals in same-sex relationships are nested within larger kinship systems, in particular those that include children and parents, and family dynamics may diverge from patterns found for individuals in different-sex relationships Ocobock, ; Patterson, ; Reczek, The same holds for children raised by gay men, but more studies should be done. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40 6
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Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships
Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Current Directions in Psychological Science. Are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples really different from heterosexual married couples? One hundred planned lesbian-parent families i. Children in traditional families i. Lesbian, gay, and straight contexts.
National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Annual Review of Sociology. Mothers raising their child without a father reported more severe disputes with their child than did mothers in father-present families. The aim of the study was to investigate family functioning and the psychological development of children raised in fatherless families from their first year of life. Another study drew on nationally representative, longitudinal data using a sampling pool of over 20, children, of which lived in a same-sex parent household. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 20 4